Yes. If permitted access to the upper Grand River, a relatively small number of sea lampreys could produce between 135,000 and 200,000 parasitic juvenile sea lamprey. Such an event could result in the loss of 1.4 million to 2.0 million fish with an economic value of between $39 million and $58 million. Lampricide treatment efficiency for the Grand River is estimated at 95% due to the dendritic nature of the watershed, so there will still be considerable economic loss under a treatment scenario. Applying a 95% treatment efficiency would still result in an annual production of 6,750-10,000 juveniles to Lake Michigan and an economic cost of $1,950,000 – $2,900,000 annually.